/A <> Dr Shankar added that in other parts of northern India there is fluctuation in temperature and humidity, and the nights are cooler, but in Muzaffarpur humidity increases at night making it worse than the day, especially for children. Blackgram & Greengram: Diseases and Symptoms, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY). Discover the world's research. Keissler is a recent and economically important disease of litchi. Table S2. ): Spray beetles with a permethrin-based insecticide.. Lychee Diseases. The strains were identified as Bacillus subtilis based on physiological and biochemical characters and analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Pathogenicity tests indicated that A. alternata infected and caused blights of the leaves, panicles and fruit of litchi. The disease control value of N1E on tomato plants was 90.5% under production conditions, as compared to the 77% conferred by a chemical fungicide, the mixture of carbendazim and diethofencarb (1:1). Treatment in unsterilized soil was less efficacious. We propose the possible mechanisms of the strain of B. subtilis JK-14 in controlling of postharvest peach diseases. Infected tissues collected from different sites in diseased fields were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and the pathogen was identified as Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler on the basis of its morphological and growth characteristics. Please leave all source links intact and adhere to applicable copyright and intellectual property guidelines and laws. Singap J Prim Ind 12:40–49, Gupta JH (1992) Chemical control of algal rust of litchi caused by, Kumar V (2016) Diseases in litchi management. Blight, in the form of leaf, panicle and fruit, was observed in litchi plants cultivated at the farm in ICAR-National Research Centre on litchi, Muzaffarpur, Bihar (India). /Creator (\(Foxit Advanced PDF Editor\)) ', India Could be Largest Contributor for the Renewable Energy Sector in 2021, Shah Rukh Khan's Look for New Film Pathan Reminds Fans of Don 2, India vs Australia: Sanjay Manjrekar Back in Commentary Box for India's Series Down Under, Maradona's Iconic 'Hand of God' Goal in 1986 WC Goes Viral as Fans Remember the Argentine Legend, 12 Years of 26/11: Unforgettable Images of Mumbai Terror Attack, Cyclone Nevar Batters Tamil Nadu and Puducherry; Dramatic Visuals. Only 27 out of 45 Bacillus isolates showed antagonistic properties. Also known as pepper spot disease, symptoms of anthracnose on lychee fruit include small tan-black raised lesions and/or a white fuzzy mycelium coating on the fruit. caused by Alternaria tenuissima (Kunze ex. Figure S3. In glass house condition, Azoxystrobin (PDI=16.7% and PDC=80.2%), Difenoconazole (PDI=18.5% and PDC=78.0%), Thiophanate methyl (PDI=19.3% and PDC=77.1%) and Copper oxy chloride (PDI=24.4% and PDC=70.9%) were found to be highly effective in reduction of leaf blight. “Children suffering from fever and convulsion early in the morning are brought to health centres after 6-8 hours. The results revealed that this strain was capable of growing in a medium containing 5 mM of NaCN with a degradation efficiency of 53.8%. /Border [0 0 0] India is one of the leading litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) Identification of B. cereus genes with similarity to genes known to be important for biofilm formation in B. subtilis. from litchi orchard ecosystem and to evaluate antagonistic potential and its biological fitness so as to develop a commercial formulation for field application to manage litchi diseases. Furthermore, the cellulolytic activity of the bacterium was determined. The treatment of the seed with co-inoculation of the pathogen with Bacillus sp. Postharvest Biol Technol 1:273–281, Mishra AK, Pandey BK (2001) Disease of litchi and their management. Discrediting previously theories, he claimed that deaths occurred due to “acclimatisation failure in children” and instead were caused by “environmental factors” such as the heat wave and poor rainfall in the area. Evolution of resistance to QoIs will depend mainly on early mitotic events; the selection process for resistant mutants in populations exposed to QoI treatments may follow mechanisms similar to those described for resistance controlled by single nuclear genes in other fungicide classes. Finding no fault in the lack of facilities at the hospital, he extended his support to doctors for their efficiency in dealing with the crisis and also promised to set up a “multi-disciplinary institute” to “identify the reason behind the disease”. B. cereus 905 was grown in the indicated growth media in wells of a 12-well tissue culture plate at 37°C for 24 h. The medium was removed and biofilms were washed twice with PBS. endobj ABSRACT Eight fungicides viz. All spray programs inhibited the development of disease and improved marketable tuber yields compared with unsprayed plots. /Margins [0 0 0 0] Values shown are the average of three independent experiments with error bars indicating the standard deviation. Slides were visualized by phase contrast microscopy with a 100× oil objective. It could grow well at temperature between 15 to 45 °C, tolerated pH between 4.0 to 7.0 and high salt stress (0.25-1.50 M NaCl). Penz. Web Administrator: Dr. Vinod Kumar, Sr. Biological control represents an important approach to manage plant diseases. The field collected samples of litchi fruits, affected by fruit cracking, revealed that the exposed It was noted that the bacterial culture occurred at an initial density of OD560 = 1.0, cultivated at 30 °C for 48 hours demonstrated the strongest antagonistic effect (57.07 % inhibition). caused by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) 1 0 obj /ProcSet [/PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC /ImageI] >> Bacillus isolates were isolated from the rhizosphere of tomato to use as natural bio-control agents. Among the ten newer fungicides evaluated under in vitro condition by poisoned food technique against Alternaria alternata revealed tebuconazole, hexaconazole and azoxystrobin (18.2%) + difenconazole (11.4%) at all the three concentrations (500, 1000 and 1500 ppm) completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the pathogen and proved to be most effective. Five soil samples from tomato rhizosphere were collected from shambat area, Khartoum State, Sudan. ‘China’ ranged from 6.6 to 17.3%. Among different fungicides, Difenoconazole at 1000 ppm, Copper Oxy chloride at 1500 ppm, Azoxystrobin at 2000 ppm completely inhibited (100%) mycelial growth of A. alternata under in vitro condition. Spray programs of 4-6 applications of fungicides from several different mode-of-action groups were evaluated in 4 field trials on commercial properties in South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland. Serial dilution technique was adopted for the isolation of Bacillus species. In Muzaffarpur, despite intensive study by experts from the National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), New Delhi and the Center for Disease Control (CDC), Atlanta (USA), there are two competing theories of the epidemic: one, caused by heat stroke, and two, caused by a toxin in locally-grown fruit, litchi. Fig. Alternaria blight of sunflower. The rot gradually penetrates deep into the pulp. /Producer (Iceni Technology. doi: McLauchlan RL, Mitchell GE, Johanson GI, Nottingham SM, Hammerton KM (1992) Effect of disinfection dose of irradiation on the physiology of Taiso lychee. cereus 905 wild-type and deletion mutants with and without complementation constructs, as described in the text, were grown in MSgg for 3 days at 30°C in a 24 well plate and images were taken. The influence of B. subtilis BS-2 and peppermint oil on the growth of B. cinerea was evaluated based on the growth rate index. is a juicy fruit belonging to the Sapindaceae family and is one of the most important evergreen fruit trees. A clear inhibition zone of 0.5–1 cm was observed in dual plate assay. >> Litchi fruit is famous for its attractive red colour, excellent quality characteristics and pleasant flavor. /Parent 2 1 R Kumar V, Purbey SK, Anal AKD (2016) Losses in litchi at various stages of supply chain and changes in fruit quality parameters. | Skip to main content | Screen Reader Access | -A A A+, This site is visited since 1st October 2018. Extended Summaries of National Several fungi have been found to be associated with diseases. Biological control using microbial antagonists has been explored as an alternative approach for the management of postharvest disease of fruits. ADVERTISEMENTS: Insects and Diseases that Occurs in Litchi Plant and its Control! << Since both B. subtilis strains exhibited several traits beneficial to the host and showed promising results when applied as bioinoculants, they may be used to develop new, safer and effective formulations as an alternative to chemical fungicides. /MediaBox [0 0 612 792] Pellicle Formation by Bacillus subtilis in a range of growth media. This is a preview of subscription content, Brown BI, Scott KJ, Mayer DG (1984) Control of ripe fruit rots of guava, lychee and custard apple by postharvest prochloraz dips. 1. 149-151 (2003), Bacterial endophytes were isolated from the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. In the isogamous fungus B graminis f sp tritici, crosses of sensitive and resistant parents yielded cleistothecia containing either sensitive or resistant ascospores and the segregation pattern for resistance in the F1 progeny population was 1:1. The effect of peppermint oil was evaluated at a, Postharvest fungal disease is one of the significant factors that limits the storage period and marketing life of peaches, and even result in serious economic losses worldwide.